Chamberlain PHI 208 Week 2 Quiz
Question 1 1 / 1 pts
“Respect for persons” is the basis of a common objection to utilitarianism. The argument states that a utilitarian does not adequately respect the dignity and rights of the individual. Which of the following stories from this text BEST reflects that objection?
- The surgeon who considers killing a healthy Sally to harvest organs for five dying patients.
- The voluntary sacrifices of Martin Luther King, Jr. or Mahatma Ghandi.
- The self-centered shepherd who keeps a magic ring to make himself invisible.
- The soldier throwing himself on a grenade to save the lives of his comrades.
Question 2 1 / 1 pts
Among the following scenarios, which is MOST likely to be morally right according to utilitarianism decrease the salaries of 2,000 workers so that the factory owners can increase their profit.
- lay off 15% of 2,000 workers so that the remaining 85% do not lose their jobs.
- lay off 15% of 2,000 workers to instill fear in the other 85% making them more obedient.
- shut down a hanger factory that employs 2,000 workers to move it to a
- different country where taxes are lower.
Question 3 1 / 1 pts
Kathleen is a girls’ soccer coach who lies now and then to her young team in order to keep up their spirits and guarantee they have fun, even if they are not the best players in the league. Kathleen’s lying could be an example of utilitarian __________.
Question 4 1 / 1 pts
Lois considers herself an act utilitarian. Accordingly, which of the following
statements is Lois MOST likely to make?
- “It may be O.K. to violate someone’s rights if the good you produce outweighs the harm caused by the violation.”
- “It is O.K. to violate someone’s rights if the law says it’s okay.”
- “Good consequences are not as important as human rights.”
- “The notion of rights is just a way for lesser members of society to maintain control over those capable of greatness.”
Question 5 1 / 1 pts
Who is considered the father of utilitarianism?
- Jeremy Bentham
- John Stuart Mill
- Mary Midgley
Question 6 0 / 1 pts
All of the following can make it difficult to calculate an action’s utility EXCEPT
- the commitment of the person taking the action.
- determining what constitutes the greatest good.
- the scope and time frame of the consequences to be considered.
- disagreement about the meaning of happiness.
Question 7 1 / 1 pts
Suppose a society believes that throwing an innocent boy into a volcano will keep the volcano from erupting—and therefore save hundreds of lives. What variety of utilitarian thought does this action represent?
- act utilitarianism
- egoist utilitarianism
- rule utilitarianism
- conventional utilitarianism
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Question 8 0 / 1 pts
Utilitarianism and consequentialism more broadly are ethical theories that __________.
- use outdated forms of reasoning
- have few concrete applications
- have many variations
- have almost no critics or challengers Utilitarianism
Question 9 1 / 1 pts
LeBron is writing a paper on how utilitarianism applies to animals. Which statement would be an example of the objectivity (scientific rationality) of utilitarianism?
- Science shows that animals experience pleasure and pain, and so those experiences should be considered when reasoning about moral actions.
- All animals have the same inherent dignity and the right not to be treated as a mere means to another’s ends.
- Humans have always treated animals as lesser beings, and so that means that we are right to continue doing so.
- Only the pleasure and pain of humans matter because only humans have an immaterial soul.
Question 10 1 / 1 pts
Allen is a critic of utilitarianism. Of the following sentences, which is LEAST likely to factor into his critique?
- “There are other things more important than happiness and suffering.”
- “There is no such thing as happiness and suffering.”
- “One cannot define happiness and suffering in a universal way.”
- “One cannot measure happiness and suffering.”
Question 11 1 / 1 pts
According to John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism takes into account the happiness of
- everyone, but gives greater weight to those who are more intelligent.
- everyone, and weights everyone’s happiness equally.
- the agent (actor) and those the agent cares about.
- only the agent (actor).
Question 12 1 / 1 pts
What did John Stuart Mill believe about those who sacrifice their own happiness for that of others?
- They are mistaken since their own happiness should be their only aim.
- They do the right thing but for the wrong reason since the happiness of others isn’t important.
- They represent an aspect of morality that utilitarianism cannot explain.
- They demonstrate the utilitarian principle that the greatest happiness for the greatest number should serve as the standard of our actions.
Question 13 1 / 1 pts
Which of the following would be an expression of rule utilitarianism rather than act utilitarianism?
- “We shouldn’t torture this person because we wouldn’t want him to torture us.”
- “Even if torturing this person right now might be beneficial, the overall consequences of permitting torture are harmful, and so we should not allow it in any circumstance.”
- “It is okay to torture this person because it may save thousands of lives.”
- “It is immoral to torture this person because the pain it would cause him outweighs any potential benefits we might receive.”
Question 14 1 / 1 pts
Utilitarianism is a form of what broader ethical theory?
Question 15 1 / 1 pts
According to Mill, how can we determine the difference between higher and lower pleasures?
- We can’t, since Mill says there is no discernable difference.
- By their relative duration and intensity.
- By the preference of those who are acquainted with both.
- By their conformity to religious teachings.